Dolgov, I., Graves, W. J., Nearents, M. R., Schwark, J. D., & Brooks Volkman, C. (2014). Effects of cooperative gaming and avatar customization on subsequent spontaneous helping behavior. Computers in Human Behavior, 33, 49–55. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2013.12.028
- In a 2 (customization, no customization) x 2 (cooperative, competitive) study, participants (N=54) played a Wii Sports game for 25 minutes. Identification was higher for participants who customized their avatars.
- This study found that if players customize their avatars, they show more subsequent spontaneous helping behavior.
- In general, cooperative game engendered more helping behaviors after the gameplay.
Goals should be meaningful and valuable. Even though the goals may be SMART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, Timely), if we don’t perceive them as meaningful or valued, our engagement with goal attainment progress will diminish (Wigfield & Eccles, 1992). When people know the value of the task to be completed, they will be more willing to work longer and harder. In classrooms, one way to achieve meaningful goal setting is to relate the assignments and topics to students’ beliefs and values. Instructors should making connections between current events and learning objectives as well as assignments to establish task meaningfulness (Lang, 2013).
Another way to set meaningful goals is to make a clear connection between what students will learn and how this learning goal is important outside of that particular course. For example, instructors can show how the material may be used to solve issues in society. In addition, similar to the goal writing practice in Ferguson and Sheldon’s study (2010), students may benefit from writing why they choose goals to affirm the meaningfulness of their goals before they commit. Writing down the reasons to pursue course related goals helped students with higher task relevant skills to internalize their goals (Ferguson & Sheldon, 2010).
Ferguson, Y., & Sheldon, K.M. (2010). Should goal-strivers think about ‘why’ or ‘how’ to strive? It depends on their skill level. Motivation and Emotion, 34, 253-265.
Lang, J.M. (2013). Cheating Lessons: Learning from Academic Dishonesty. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Wigﬁeld , A. , & Eccles , J. (1992). The development of achievement task values: A theoretical analysis. Developmental Review, 12 , 265 – 310 .
I have been taking “Design of Everyday Things” by Don Norman from Udacity. It has been fun. The assignments are not overwhelming. For the last project they asked to design a tool that uses time as money where you can exchange time as a currency on skills. Basically, you need to help others to get time to pay others to get things done. Fun idea. I was surprised that so many people used the hourglass metaphor. When i was working on the wireframes, I thought it was a brilliant idea. Haha! I still think it is but many others thought like me. Course instructors also suggested many digital tools to make prototyping more interactive, especially important while presenting your product. Here is the list:
Hybrid paper/digital tools allow you take a picture of a paper sketch and animate it:
● Pop https://popapp.in/
● Flinto https://www.flinto.com/
● Apple Keynote or MS PowerPoint or Google presentation http://keynotopia.com/guides/
● Balsamiq http://balsamiq.com/
If you do not know how to code, here are some visual tools that generate HTML5:
● Tumult Hype http://tumult.com/hype/
● Adobe Edge Animate http://html.adobe.com/edge/animate/
● Google’s Web Designer https://www.google.com/webdesigner
This link has a pretty good list of tools. It may be a bit dated though.
Another list of annotation tools: http://myminer.armi.monash.edu.au/annotation_tools.php
Collaborative text annotation: http://brat.nlplab.org/
A video annotation research tool: http://www.anvil-software.org/
Another tool for collaborative annotation: http://www.hylighter.com/hybar/site/index.html